Bishop earned his Bachelor of Arts degree at Presentation College and was educated at the London School of Economics. After returning to Grenada in 1973, he was elected head of the Marxist New Jewel Movement political party. Bishop was elected to Parliament and for several years held the position of leader of the opposition in the Grenadian House of Representatives.
In 1979, the ruling party was deposed and Bishop was declared Prime Minister of Grenada. In 1983, Bishop was deposed and placed under house arrest. On October 19, 1983, Bishop and seven others, including cabinet ministers and his mistress, were executed by firing squad. In May, 2009, the Grenada airport was renamed Maurice Bishop International Airport in his honor.